• 2021-03-02 Tuesday

Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen!

First of all, I would like to thank Cheers Publishing for hosting this salon to follow the footprints of the masters. My presentation today is to take a glimpse of Marvin Minsky's academic prowess.

As we all know, Marvin Minsky was born in New York in 1927 as the father of artificial intelligence. He served in the Navy from 1944 to 1945. In 1950, he received a bachelor's degree from the Department of Mathematics of Harvard University. He received his Ph.D. in mathematics from Princeton in 1954. In 1956, Marvin Minsky created artificial intelligence with McCarthy and Simon. By 1959, Marvin Minsky and McCarthy created the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.

Marvin Minsky contributed his life to artificial intelligence, so he won many awards in his life. First of all, in 1970, he won the Turing Prize in the field of artificial intelligence for the first time. The Turing Prize, awarded by CML, is regarded as the Nobel Prize in the field of computer information. This award was awarded to Marvin Minsky in the field of artificial intelligence for the first time in 1970. He won the MIT Kilian Award in 1989. In 1990, the Japanese government established a "Japan Award". In 1991, the International Joint Conference of Artificial Intelligence(IJCAI) had two awards, one was awarded to the elderly as a lifetime achievement award, and the other was an outstanding youth award. Among them, the outstanding achievement award was won by Marvin Minsky. In 1995, the IEEE Computer Society awarded the Computer Pioneer Award to Marvin Minsky.

In 1996, I took a photo with Marvin Minsky at the PRICAI International Conference in Cairns, Australia.

Marvin Minsky, who is also special advisors for the intelligent sciences series, is very supportive of this work.

I will illustrate Marvin Minsky's contribution to artificial intelligence with four books by him.

Marvin Minsky created artificial intelligence at the Dartmouth Conference in 1956, and since then everyone calls him the father of artificial intelligence.

In 1958, he left Harvard University and went to MIT. In fact, Harvard and MIT are the same as Tsinghua university and Peking University. The campus is very close to each other. He left Harvard for MIT, where he co-founded the Computer Artificial Intelligence Laboratory with McCarthy. He designed and built a 14-degree free manipulator with a scanner and tactile sensor.

He also combined artificial intelligence technology and robotics technology to develop Robot C, the world's first robot capable of simulating human activities, so that robotics technology has entered a new stage.

In 1961, Marvin Minsky published a paper titled "Towards Artificial Intelligence", which greatly promoted the development of artificial intelligence at that time. In this article, he put some theoretical questions and made a very deep explanation. This paper has played a great role in the development of our artificial intelligence.

At the same time, Marvin Minsky has broad interests. In the 1960s, he proposed the concept of "telepresence" (remote intervention), which is called virtual reality nowadays. Marvin Minsky's thinking is very advanced because he has already proposed such a "virtual reality" idea in the 1960s.

Marvin Minsky’s most influential contribution to artificial intelligence is the framework theory, which is a very important knowledge representation method for artificial intelligence. The core of framework theory is to represent knowledge in the form of framework. Such a framework is actually a hierarchical structure, consisting of so-called concepts, objects, events, slots, and is embedded with concrete values. Therefore, this slot frame theory is also a very important representation method in "Mind Society" and "Emotional Machine". So his thinking was formed in 1975. As a framework, it has a great impact not only on artificial intelligence, but also on the software industry. It is also believed that Marvin Minsky gave the framework theory of such thinking as our object-oriented technology and method that emerged in the 1980s.

This is the how the framework was composed. This is to describe a university teacher, we can use such a structure to describe such a framework. Frames can be connected to form a frame system. Such relationships can be established between frameworks. From the 1960s to the 1970s, the article "Towards Artificial Intelligence" played a very important role in promoting the development of artificial intelligence.

Marvin Minsky also made a great contribution to neural networks. When he received his doctorate in 1954, his doctoral thesis was about neural networks and cranial nerves. His middle school classmate was Rosenblatt, and he proposed a perceptron model in 1957. This is actually a single-layer neural network, and this perceptron model is like this.

Marvin Minsky has a good background in mathematics, for his undergraduate and doctoral degree are in the Department of mathematics. In order to prove such a convergence and generalization, he cooperated with Pipette in Perceptrons. He used mathematics to study neural networks. But after the publication of this book, it played the opposite role. The research of neural network is no longer popular, so the whole world canceled the original neural network project. Why? Because Marvin Minsky pointed out in his book that the XOR function of perceptron can not be realized, which is different or very basic.

So we can't use such a single layer neural network perceptron. But after Marvin Minsky pointed out this problem, after people's research, he proposed the so-called multilayer perceptron. As long as we add a top layer, we can greatly improve the expression ability of neural network, and can approach any problem. Of course, in terms of the objective effect produced by this book, the research of neural network has been not popular. So people in the 1980s, basically when they published articles, they would scold him and vent this hatred on Marvin Minsky.

But I think Marvin Minsky's book points out the XOR problem, which leads people to the so-called multilayer perceptron. This event has turned from its negative to positive and has produced positive effects. In the 1980s, Marvin Minsky's student handler founded the famous "thinking machine company", and Marvin Minsky was one of the founders. In the 1980s, artificial intelligence came to a climax. At that time, Japan put forward the so-called five generation machine, and the whole world made efforts to this aspect. Marvin Minsky's student handler founded the mind machine company and developed such a linker. This machine just reflected Marvin Minsky's idea. Through the connection, the CPU and the programmer can work in parallel to solve the so-called bottleneck between processor and memory. From this point of view, I think it has played a great role.

In 1992, CM-5 was used in U.S. naval laboratories.

This is how the CM-2 is connected to the core of the system. So in the 1980s, they came up with a highly parallel, called the linker. This is the software situation of CM-5.

Another important work of Marvin Minsky is the Mental Society, which was published in 1985. In this book, he put forward the idea of "agent". Marvin Minsky believes that the so-called intelligence does not exist in the central processing unit, but is generated by the collective behavior of many special-purpose and closely connected machines. The mind is made up of many small processors called agents. Each agent can only do simple tasks. They have no mind. When agents constitute society, they produce intelligence. This idea has played a great role in the research of artificial intelligence.

Another idea is to put forward the K-line, which is very important in the mental society. It is the so-called knowledge line, which is also the main idea of the five generation machines in Japan in the 1980s. Marvin Minsky also adopts such an idea in this book. He thinks that the general aspect in the middle is through the K-line level, because this level is actually a public level, equivalent to shared level, so it is called knowledge line.

This film as "mental society" means that the mind is composed of many independent parts. This film is taken from the emotional machine, which just reflects the thinking of mental society.

In 2006, Marvin Minsky published another famous book, the Emotional Machine. This book provides a roadmap for creating an understanding, thinking, human conscious, common sense thinking. In this book, he focuses on the six dimensions of creation, the level of consciousness and mental activity, common sense, thinking, intelligence and self. These are the six dimensions of creation in Marvin Minsky's Emotional Machine.

Consciousness is an important issue in the world today and its origin and essence are important scientific problems. In 2005, when the 125th anniversary of the publication of science, 125 scientific issues were published where "consciousness" plays as a very important issue, as well as its origin and essence. An important goal of the American Brain Project is to explore scientific issues such as consciousness. In Marvin Minsky's book, the chapter on consciousness actually awakens a lot of important ideas about consciousness today. He himself also put forward the so-called A, B, C brain, A brain, B brain, C brain, as consciousness continues to deepen.

This is equivalent to building such awareness through the wrong interpretation of resources.

As for consciousness, in my book Mind Calculation, I mentioned that "consciousness" refers to the awareness, regulation or control of mental processes such as cognition, emotion and will. We also put forward the so-called “machine consciousness”, which is a mind control system and this is the machine consciousness diagram we put forward.

Consciousness is a difficult issue. In the Emotional Machine, Marvin Minsky lists many such ideas of consciousness. Of course, in this book, he highlights the idea of Bayer Consciousness, Global Space Theory, which is a kind of consciousness theory that most people agree with at present.

Marvin Minsky proposed the hierarchy of spiritual activities. Here Marvin Minsky divided it into six sections: "instinctive response", "postnatal reaction", "meditation", "reflection", "self-reflection" and "self-consciousness reflection".

As the subject of common-sense knowledge, human beings will involve in many problems when they getting along with each other in the civilized world. So, in this book, Marvin Minsky mainly quotes Lenat’s ideas to explain the so-called common-sense knowledge base.

Marvin Minsky also mentioned it in his book that a famous professor is also doing this work, and it is quoted in his book. So in the aspect of common sense, the main problem is to build what kind of common-sense knowledge base to make people in dealing with physics more conveniently and effectively.

There are three levels: physical level, sovereign level and spiritual level. This is identified as the Domain of Sovereignty in the book. The spiritual level is not exactly the same in his several manuscripts. In some versions, he regards the spiritual level as behavior or execution. This is the theory as Marvin Minsky's common sense.

As for thinking, Marvin Minsky made it clear in the Emotional Machine. He used “If-Do”, which is a very important knowledge representation method called the production system in artificial intelligence. Marvin Minsky extended it to critic selector mode. The word "critical" is difficult to translate. I have been thinking that if it is translated into "批评家", it will not be easy to understand. Like “if”, which is to identify the premise of this problem, we call it "precondition". So here, we translate "critical" into "批评家" in our book, which is easy to be misunderstood. This model is equivalent to a recognizer selector. You first evaluate the problem, identify it, and then you decide what method to use based on your thinking. So this is Marvin Minsky's thinking dimension in his book which I think it is very clear. He broadened such a production system into a critic selector model.

In terms of thinking, Marvin Minsky proposed six levels, from instinct to acquirement, meditation, reflection, self-reflection, and then self-consciousness and emotion. Therefore, the key point in this chapter is to introduce the word "context box" (translated as "语境盒" in the book). The translation of this word is a little unappropriated. My suggestion is to use "语境栈". The "栈" means a level and a sequential relationship. This is Marvin Minsky's thinking in the Emotional Machine. And this is Marvin overall thinking. When you talk about a box, different box means different solution. The reason why I recommend to replace “盒” with "栈" is because "栈" is an important data structure after information processing.

After going through these four dimensions, Marvin Minsky raises the issue of intelligence in Chapter 8. It emphasizes that every five kinds of individual intelligence develop from stupidity to excellence, which is an evolutionary process. Moreover, the process of evolution is the re combination of various resources, which he put forward here, that is, the utilization of various resources.

Another concept is "self", which is to see oneself from various perspectives. Therefore, Marvin Minsky puts these six important issues in front of readers through his book Emotional Machine.

In Mind Computing, Marvin Minsky mainly uses agent as a basic unit of translation. Emotional Machine mainly uses resources, through which I can better reflect such a level of relationship of interaction and synergy. So the two books are different. But in terms of thinking, I think there are still many things in common. Mind is a kind of society and a combination, not a single element behavior. It is a kind of combined behavior. Of course, the depth of Emotional Machine is deeper.

Marvin Minsky has put forward a lot of good ideas for artificial intelligence. He is full of pioneering ideas and his thinking is very open. He has contributed his whole life to the development of artificial intelligence and made great contributions.

Here I quote Marvin Minsky's colleague Alan Kay as a conclusion: "Marvin Minsky has a rare insight in the field of computer science. He thinks that the computer is not an add-on machine, but an amplifier that can maximize human ability."

OK, thank you!

Chinese Association for Artificial Intelligence

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